Cinema films law
Law 5224 on the Evaluation, Classification and Support of Cinema Films prepared by Ministry of Culture and Tourism, known as the Law on Cinema, entered into force on 21 July 2004. This Law aims to create a contemporary and effective environment of cultural communication through the efficient use of cinema productions. The Law provides for the fact that the cinema sector shall be supported so as to improve training, entrepreneurship, production, distribution and projection in this sector. The scope of the Law, in general, covers provisions as to the supervision of local and international films to be shown in movie theatres across Turkey and State financial support to the Turkish cinema sector.
This Law is enforced through the Evaluation and Classification Board containing three members to be appointed by the Ministry as well as a psychologist, a sociologist and child development experts in addition to other members, the Consultation Board comprising sector representatives and the Support Board which ensures that repayable or non-repayable aid is provided for the production, archiving and researching of cinema films; the Board also manages these activities.
This Law differs from the previous Law (Law 3257 on Cinema, Video and Music Production) in that the term ‘supervision’ has been replaced by the terms ‘evaluation’ and ‘classification’. Films produced in Turkey or export films deemed appropriate for commercial distribution or projection by the Evaluation and Classification Board shall bear a sign (banderol) showing that they have been approved by the Board. Films to be shown in movie theatres are assigned categories such as ‘violent’, ‘pornographic’ and ‘political’ according to their contents. It is obligatory to include information about a film’s content on advertising posters. Viewers thereby receive advance warning about the film. Censorship is averted and each film content category has its own age limitations.
Projects deemed appropriate by the Support Board are supported in all areas ranging from idea, research-development, scenario to translation, design, production, distribution and projection expenses. Films are provided with money either directly or in line with budget limitations, or support is provided to enable them to obtain reasonable loans. Although such a situation brings about the promotion of popular films, especially in pay-back productions, it also ensures development of cinema as an industry and increases the number of local productions.Although decisions taken by the Support Board are only recommendations, they are effective in determining cinema policies. A constant exchange of opinion and communication is ensured between the cinema sector and the Ministry.
The Law provides for three main categories of support, namely ‘project support’, ‘production support’ and ‘post-production support’. However, special projects and productions on the promotion of Turkey, selected by the Support Board, national and international film festivals, film weeks and days, cultural and social activities concerning cinema and cinema sector workers may be directly supported by the Ministry out of resources other than the funds designated. Through new amendments and an increase of support towards the film sector, there has been a significant resurgence in the Turkish cinema sector especially in recent years. Under this new Law cinema has begun to be considered a sector in itself.
The administrative structure of the State Opera and Ballet comprises three bodies: the Artistic Board, which shall offer assistance to the General Director and Directors on artistic matters and provide opinions on the repertoire; the Technical Board, which will examine and evaluate staff and trainees to be hired, send staff abroad to improve their knowledge and culture, and send abroad for treatment those State Opera and Ballet staff whose condition of health is such that they cannot be treated in Turkey; and lastly, the Disciplinary Board operating under the presidency of the General Director or one of the Deputy Directors.
Civil servants employed by the State Opera and Ballet (SOB) are classified as SOB artists, SOB practice experts and SOB experts and are employed at the discretion of the Technical Board. The Technical Board is authorized to determine civil servants’ ranks and increase or decrease their salaries based on their mastery and skills. The Technical Board is both authorized and obliged to examine civil servants before they sign initial administrative contracts with the SOB, identify those artists known for their outstanding achievement on stage, who will be exempt from examinations, and calculate annual per-diems to be paid to the staff on tour.
Besides the general power and authority that rest with the General Directorate in Ankara, the Law, the greater part of which was amended in 1970, is observed to provide artistic and technical boards with considerable operational authority and liability. The Law does not state clearly whether the theatres to be established in other provinces shall be affiliated to Artistic and Technical Boards under the Ankara General Directorate or shall establish their own artistic and administrative boards.