Production of technologies
Turkey has never been a producer of new technologies. Software, hardware, and technological services were always imported or adapted. Thus no culture of passionate scientists, no innovative lab findings, and no roots of strong digital culture at large exist. However, digital subcultures and individual avant-gardes emerged over the course of the past 15 years. Those rare specialists who were trained abroad created innovative digital work. Some people who tried unexpected uses of technology locally caused the formation of digital subcultures.